3rd Quarter 2011 CE Packet

Head and C-spine Trauma

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1) The primary purpose of the skull is to:
A. protect the brain.
B. protect the spinal cord.
C. provide a base for the scalp and facial tissue.
D. regulate body functions.
2) If someone has lost brain function, even temporarily, a visible injury will always be present.
A. true
B. false
3) Temporal bone fractures are of significant concern because:
A. they are no more significant than another area of the skull that is injured.
B. blood vessels including the middle meningeal artery are located in that area and are susceptible to damage.
C. they are located directly adjacent to the brain stem.
D. none of the above.
4) Basilar skull fractures:
A. frequently occur because of blunt force trauma.
B. may cause bilateral periorbital ecchymosis (raccoon's eyes)
C. may cause ecchymosis over the mastoid process (Battle's sign).
D. all of the above
5) Bleeding within the skull is significant because:
A. it can cause an increase in pressure.
B. it can cause swelling.
C. there is minimal, if any, room for the brain to expand as the skull is a closed container.
D. all of the above.
6) A contra coup injury occurs:
A. on the same side that the force is applied.
B. on the opposite side that the force is applied.
C. only in falls.
D. only in high-speed deceleration injuries.
7) Subdural hematomas in an elderly patient may go undetected for a period of time because:
A. elderly patients often have altered mental status normally.
B. they rarely seek help.
C. due to normal atrophy of the brain, there is room to accommodate swelling that occurs from bleeding and signs/symptoms do not appear as rapidly as in other patients.
D. many elderly patients are on blood thinners so they bleed slower.
8) A tear in the middle meningeal artery usually results in:
A. a subdural hematoma.
B. an intracerebral hemorrhage.
C. an epidural hematoma.
D. a contra coup injury.
9) A diffuse axonal injury::
A. frequently occurs when there is no visible injury present.
B. frequently occurs as a result of acceleration-deceleration forces.
C. frequently results in a comatose patient.
D. all of the above.
10) Patients suffering from a brain injury frequently present with a variety of signs and symptoms. These may include:
A. difficulty concentrating.
B. mood swings including lethargy and/or aggression.
C. altered sleep habits.
D. all of the above.
11) Brain injuries always result in unconsciousness.
A. true.
B. false.
12) The Glasgow Coma Scale measures:
A. eye movement, verbal response, motor response.
B. pulse, blood pressure, respiratory rate.
C. facial grimace, speech, arm drift.
D. eye movement, gait, speech.
13) The number one cause of head injuries is/are:
A. motor vehicle crashes.
B. penetrating object.
C. falls.
D. stroke.
14) Prevention is a major component of reduction of head injuries. EMT's can play a major role in prevention by:
A. encouraging use of helmets in sporting activities.
B. acting as a patient advocate while in the home of an elderly patient and pointing out potential risks such as loose floor coverings.
C. encouraging certain patients to use support devices such as canes or walkers.
D. all of the above.
15) Any time there is a head injury, EMT's should consider the possibility of a C-spine injury.
A. true.
B. false.