Infertility in Women
Infertility is not being able to conceive after a year of trying. This means having regular, unprotected sex. About one-third of cases are caused by male factors. An equal number are caused by female factors. In the remaining cases, the cause is unknown or is due to problems with both partners.
Successful conception involves many steps:
Most cases of infertility are due to problems with ovulation or problems with fallopian tubes.
Problems with Ovulation
If the egg is not released from the follicle in the ovary, you will not be able to conceive. Up to 40% of cases are due to this. Some factors that can cause problems are:
Problems with Fallopian Tubes
If the fallopian tubes are damaged or blocked, it is difficult for the egg to be fertilized or to travel to the uterus. Problems can be caused by:
These factors increase your chance of developing infertility:
During the first visit, you will both be evaluated. The doctor will ask about symptoms and medical history. Your doctor will look for physical problems that might cause infertility.
The following tests may be done to see if you are ovulating:
The following may be done to check if your uterus and fallopian tubes are normal:
Treatment depends on what is causing the condition. Treatments can be costly and lengthy. They often are not covered by insurance.
Your doctor may suggest that you first try:
If you do not ovulate, you may be given medications that cause ovulation. The likelihood of multiple births is increased with these medications.
If the fallopian tubes are blocked, you may need surgery to open them. Surgery is also used to repair problems with organs or to remove:
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
ART involves using human sperm and eggs or embryos in a lab to help with conception. The eggs and sperm can be from you and your partner or donated. ART methods include:
Not all causes of infertility can be prevented. The following steps may help:
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
American Society for Reproductive Medicine
The Hormone Foundation
RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association
Women's Health Matters
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Last reviewed October 2012 by Andrea Chisholm