Acute cystitis is inflammation of the bladder. It is usually caused by an infection. There are two types are of acute cystitis:
Acute cystitis is most often caused by bacteria. Bacteria enter the urethra and travel into the bladder. The urethra is a tube that allows urine to pass from the bladder to the outside. Bacteria may come from the lower intestines, the rectal area, or skin.
Factors that increase your risk of uncomplicated cystitis include:
Factors that increase your risk of complicated cystitis include:
Symptoms may include:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Urine will be tested for the presence of bacteria.
Acute cystitis is common in women. Children and men who develop acute cystitis may require additional examination of the bladder.
Acute cystitis is treated with antibiotics. It is important to take all antibiotics as recommended. Finish all your antibiotics even if you are feeling better.
Your doctor may also prescribe medication to reduce pain and bladder spasms.
Here are some steps you can take to keep bacteria out of your urinary tract:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
American Urological Association Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
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Katchman EA, Milo G, et al. Three-day vs longer duration of antibiotic treatment for cystitis in women: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2005;118(11):1196-1207.
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What I need to know about urinary tract infections. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/uti_ez/. Updated June 29, 2012. Accessed April 12, 2013.
5/6/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(1):23-30.
Last reviewed April 2013 by Brian Randall, MD