Acrylamide: Snack Food Cancer Risk or Not?
If warnings about fat, sodium, and empty calories did not stop you from eating your favorite fried and starchy snack foods, how about warnings about acrylamide? Acrylamide made headlines in 2002, when researchers first found high levels of acrylamide, a potentially cancer-causing agent, in a number of common foods. But, what is acrylamide? And should you avoid foods containing it?
A Natural By-product of Cooking Certain Foods
Acrylamide is an odorless, colorless chemical agent used to manufacture certain chemicals, plastics and dyes, which may have the potential for causing cancer in humans. A Swedish study published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry was the first to report that frying or baking at high temperatures (greater than 250°F [121ºC]) for prolonged periods of time could create acrylamide in many types of food, particularly starchy foods, such as:
Researchers in Norway, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Canada, and the United States conducted food analyses and came up with similar findings to the Swedish study. According to a survey by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, a large order of fast food French fries had at least 300 times more acrylamide than what the United States Environmental Protection Agency allows in a glass of water. The amount of acrylamide varied according to the type of food and, in some cases, the brand of a particular food. French fries had one of the highest amounts of acrylamide.
Dietary Acrylamide and Cancer
Scientists have concluded that acrylamide causes cancer in laboratory rats when ingested in large amounts. And large quantities of acrylamide have been found to cause nerve damage in humans. But so far, there is no evidence that the tiny amounts of acrylamide in cooked foods can cause cancer or other harmful effects when ingested by people.
According to the American Council on Science and Health, human cancer risk from dietary acrylamide cannot be adequately assessed when based exclusively on high-dose studies in laboratory animals. They believe that the acrylamide food studies probably caused unnecessary anxiety in consumers.
Study Finds Absence of Evidence
A study published in the British Journal of Cancer found no evidence that eating foods high in acrylamide increases the risk of cancer of the large bowel, bladder, and kidney. In the study, researchers from Harvard School of Public Health and the Karolinska Institute in Sweden compared the diets of close to 1,000 cancer patients and more than 500 healthy adults over a five-year period.
The researchers found that people who ate the most acrylamide were at no greater risk of cancer than those who ate less. They also found that people who ate moderate to high levels of acrylamide had no higher risk of any of the types of cancer studied. The researchers note, however, that the relation of risk to acrylamide content in all foods could not be established.
A similar study by Dr. Mucci was published in the International Journal of Cancer. The study also failed to find any relationship between acrylamide intake and colon cancer in women. Also, a study looking at acrylamide and breast cancer in Swedish women did not find any association between the two.
But Is This Evidence of Absence?
Although research provides some evidence that there is no link between dietary intake of acrylamide and major types of cancer, more research is necessary. The United States Food and Drug Administration is now working to develop a better understanding of how acrylamide is chemically formed, how to measure its presence in food, and how it functions in the human body.
What Is a Consumer to Do?
Many consumers feel reassured by the two Harvard studies on dietary acrylamide and cancer. Others remain somewhat wary and have cut back on their consumption of fries, potato chips, and other known acrylamide-containing foods. What is a consumer to do?
When it comes to acrylamide in food, the American Institute for Cancer Research stresses that consumers keep the following points in mind:
The World Health Organization (WHO) and regulatory agencies of the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, and Germany have not recommended any changes in dietary habits on the basis of the current evidence concerning acrylamide in food. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the scientific community will continue to evaluate data and determine appropriate recommendations, as necessary.
Center for Science in the Public Interest
United States Food and Drug Administration
Canadian Council on Food and Nutrition
Dietitians of Canada
Acrylamide in food and cancer risk. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer..... Accessed May 4, 2009.
Acrylamide: questions and answers. United States Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov.... Updated May 13, 2009. Accessed April 13, 2011.
AICR statement on acrylamide. American Institute for Cancer Research website. Available at: http://www.aicr.org/. Accessed April 16, 2003.
American Council on Science and Health website. Acrylamide in food: is it a real threat to public health? Available at: http://www.acsh.org. Accessed April 16, 2003.
Breast cancer in women. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated April 4, 2011. Accessed April 13, 2011.
Mucci L, Dickman P, Steineck G, et al. Dietary acrylamide and cancer of the large bowel, kidney, and bladder: absence of an association in a population-based study in Sweden. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:84-89.
Mucci L, Sandin S, Bälter K, et al. Acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk in Swedish women. JAMA. 2005;293(11):1326-1327.
New tests confirm acrylamide in American foods. Center for Science in the Public Interest website. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/new/200206251.html. Accessed April 16, 2003
Tareke E, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, et al. Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. J Agri and Food Chem. 2002;50:4988-5006.
Turning up the heat on acrylamide. United States Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2003/103_food.html. Accessed March 25, 2003
Last reviewed April 2011 by Brian Randall, MD