Improving Nutrition in the Elderly
During the "golden years," good nutrition is just as important as ever. But, many older adults become malnourished for a variety of reasons. If you or someone you care for is having trouble getting proper nutrition, here are some practical tips.
Malnutrition and Older Adults
While many people seem to focus their diets solely around trying to lose weight and prevent disease, the nutrition problems facing the elderly can be quite different.
For many elders, it is not a matter of eating too much, but rather a matter of not getting enough. And this all comes at a time of life when getting adequate nutrition—including protein, fiber, hydration, vitamins, and minerals—is as important as ever.
Adding to the problem is that many older people deal with a variety of chronic medical conditions. These conditions can contribute to poor nutrition and can also be worsened by poor nutrition.
Several factors can cause malnutrition in older adults, including the following:
Although there are many reasons why older people may become malnourished, there are also many practical ways for dealing with the problem. If you or someone you care for is experiencing malnutrition or unintentional weight loss, the best first step is to see the doctor, who may be able to diagnose an underlying condition or alter a medication regimen that may be contributing to the problem. A doctor can also provide a referral to a registered dietitian, who can design a personalized eating plan. In addition, here are some "everyday" tips for preventing malnutrition in older adults:
Make Meals and Snacks Nutrient-dense
This means making nutrient-rich foods the focus of the meal. For example, instead of plain chicken broth, try a hearty chicken and vegetable soup. Casseroles, stews, and roasts are also good meal ideas.
Add Extra Calories Without Extra Volume
For people who have a small appetite, there are ways to boost nutrition without adding lots of extra food. For example:
Use Herbs and Spices When Preparing Foods
Because many elders have diminished sense of taste and smell, making food as flavorful as possible is important. Try cooking with garlic and onion powder, salt-free seasoning blends, and fresh and dried herbs, such as basil, oregano, thyme, rosemary, and cilantro.
Make Meals Colorful and Appealing
Instead of regular mashed potatoes, try mashed sweet potatoes for a colorful and nutritious boost. Instead of plain buttered noodles, try pasta with a vibrant red tomato sauce.
Serve Several Small Meals and Snacks (Instead of Three Big Ones)
Older people with diminished appetites are often overwhelmed by large meals, so serving smaller, more frequent meals and snacks can help them feel less overwhelmed and more able to eat what they need.
Do Not Fill Up on Non-nutritious Items
For people with a small appetite, it is important not to fill up on things like coffee, tea, and soft drinks, which can take the place of more nutritious items.
Serve up a variety of foods. Research shows that elderly adults eat more when presented with a variety of foods to choose from. Here are some strategies to increase the variety on the table:
Make Mealtime Enjoyable and Social
When possible, invite friends or family over for meal times or visit community-based senior meal sites for social interaction during meals.
Use Nutrition Supplements When Necessary
While a well-balanced diet is the best bet, some people may find it easier to sip a nutrition supplement drink than to eat a meal. But, talk to your doctor or dietician to see if this is something that you should do.
Take Advantage of Services That Are Available
Many communities offer a wide range of nutrition services for older adults, including community dining sites, home-delivered meals, and home visits with registered dietitians. Research shows that meal services, such as Meals on Wheels, can improve or help maintain nutritional status in seniors. Contact your local town or city hall, department of health, or community hospital to find out what services are available in your area.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Administration on Aging
Canadian Council on Food and Nutrition
Dietitians of Canada
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Special nutrient needs of older adults. American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics website. Available at: http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6839. Updated December 2012. Accessed September 24, 2013.
Strategies to improve nutrition in elderly people. Better Medicine NZ website. Available at: http://www.bpac.org.nz/BPJ/2011/May/elderly.aspx. Accessed September 24, 2013.
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Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD