- Injuries to leg (hip to toes)
- Injuries to a bone, muscle, joint or ligament
Types of Leg Injuries
- Fractures (broken bones)
- Dislocations (bone out of joint)
- Sprains - stretches and tears of ligaments. A sprained ankle is the most common ligament injury of the leg. It’s usually caused by turning the ankle inward. The main symptoms are pain and swelling of the outside of the ankle.
- Strains - stretches and tears of muscles (e.g., pulled muscle)
- Muscle overuse injuries from sports or exercise (e.g., shin splints of lower leg)
- Muscle bruise from a direct blow (e.g., thigh muscles)
- Bone bruise from a direct blow (e.g., hip)
Pain Severity Scale
- MILD: doesn’t interfere with normal activities
- MODERATE: interferes with normal activities or awakens from sleep
- SEVERE: excruciating pain, unable to do any normal activities, incapacitated by pain
When to call your doctor
Call 911 Now (your child may need an ambulance) If
- Serious injury with multiple fractures
- Major bleeding that can't be stopped
Call Your Doctor Now (night or day) If
- You think your child has a serious injury
- Looks like a broken bone or dislocated joint
- Large swelling
- Skin beyond the injury is pale or blue
- Skin is split open or gaping and may need stitches
- Age under 1 year old
- Bicycle spoke or washing machine wringer injury
- Pain is SEVERE (and not improved after 2 hours of pain medicine)
- Won't stand or walk
- Has a limp when walking
- Unable to move leg or hip normally
- Joint nearest the injury can't be moved fully (opened and closed)
- Knee injury with a "snap" or "pop" felt at the time of impact
- You think your child needs to be seen urgently
Call Your Doctor Within 24 Hours (between 9 am and 4 pm) If
- You think your child needs to be seen, but not urgently
- Pain not improved after 3 days
Call Your Doctor During Weekday Office Hours If
- You have other questions or concerns
- No tetanus shot in over 5 years for DIRTY cuts (over 10 years for CLEAN cuts)
- Pain lasts over 2 weeks
Parent Care at Home If
- Bruised muscle or bone from direct blow
- Pain in muscle (probably from mild pulled muscle)
- Pain around joint (probably from mild stretched ligament)
HOME CARE ADVICE FOR MINOR LEG INJURIES
- Treatment of Pulled Muscle, Bruised Muscle or Bruised Bone:
- Reassurance: Bruised muscles or bones can be treated at home.
- Pain Medicine: For pain relief, give acetaminophen OR ibuprofen as needed. (See Dosage Table). Ibuprofen is more effective for this type of pain.
- Local Cold: For bruises or swelling, apply a cold pack or ice bag wrapped in a wet cloth to the area for 20 minutes per hour. Repeat for 4 consecutive hours. (Reason: reduce the bleeding and pain)
- Local Heat: After 48 hours apply a warm wet washcloth or heating pad for 10 minutes three times per day to help absorb the blood.
- Rest: Rest the injured part as much as possible for 48 hours.
- For pulled muscles, teach your youngster about stretching exercises and strength training.
- Treatment of Mild Sprains (stretched ligaments) of Ankle or Knee:
- First aid: immediate compression and ice to reduce bleeding, swelling, and pain.
- Treat with R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, and elevation) for the first 24 to 48 hours.
- Apply compression with a snug, elastic bandage for 48 hours. Numbness, tingling, or increased pain means the bandage is too tight.
- Apply a cold pack or ice bag wrapped in a wet cloth to the area for 20 minutes per hour. Repeat for 4 consecutive hours.
- Give acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol) or ibuprofen for pain relief. Continue for at least 48 hours.
- Keep injured ankle or knee elevated and at rest for 24 hours.
- After 24 hours, allow any activity that doesn't cause pain.
- Expected Course: Pain and swelling usually peak on day 2 or 3. Swelling is usually gone by 7 days. Pain may take 2 weeks to completely resolve.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- Pain becomes severe
- Pain is not improving after 3 days
- Pain lasts over 2 weeks
- Your child becomes worse
Author: Barton D. Schmitt, M.D.
Last reviewed: 9/15/2011
Last revised: 8/1/2011 3:39:28 PM