Heart valve disease happens when one or more of the four valves that are supposed to open and close with each of your heartbeats doesn’t work right. There are a few main causes of this:
Atresia, when there is no opening in the valve for blood to flow through.
Regurgitation, when the valve doesn’t close tightly, which lets blood leak backward instead of flowing forward.
Stenosis, when the valve gets thick, stiff or fuses with other tissue so it can’t open all the way, which keeps blood from flowing through it well.
Some people are born with heart valve disease. Others develop it, usually because a health problem makes their heart valves stretch or distort. For example, heart attacks, atherosclerosis
and high blood pressure can cause heart valve disease. So can autoimmune disorders, metabolic disorders
and some cancers
and cancer treatments.