There are two kinds of carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF):
A carotid-cavernous fistula often affects the eyes. Symptoms include:
If your doctor suspects a CCF, he or she may order an imaging test, such as an MRI, CT scan or one of these specialized tests:
Treatment depends on where your fistula is and how big it is. If yours is small, your doctor may suggest simply watching it to see if it closes on its own.
If your CCF is large or causing symptoms, your doctor may recommend one of the following procedures to close the fistula:
You doctor may also prescribe medications to lubricate your eyes and reduce the fluid (intraocular) pressure, easing some of your symptoms.